Throughout the ages before gold and silver coins tokens were used as a medium of exchange. Chips or Bank Checks began to become popular in the 1900 due to their colorful
appearance and they are easy to handle. You can exchange them at the "bank" or casino cage. As more and more illegal casino began to operate in the mid-west and South too much money was being tossed into the green pit so gambling houses began issuing checks instead. Plus they didn't have to have huge sums of money on hand they could operate with as little as $50,000.00 cash on hand. But handle as much as $1,000,000.00 per night
Modern Dice are comprised of plastic cut from plugs on a CNC machine with precisely cut sharp edges. Most dies are used for only one day on a Nevada Craps Table. If you want one or some buy them from the Casino gift shop. Gambling Dice have been in use since 2000 BCE and were found all over the ancient world. Dice, especially Casino dice roll in cycles. Since there are only 11 numbers that can be rolled and only one can show you can easily predict which number might pop up on each roll of the die. Chance, Luck and Fate hold sway over the events being tossed out of your hand but numerical limitations limit the repeating sequnces and increase the possability of making money on every toss a real happening. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rIYTQ8vkKaI
Craps tables and the felt designs that we see today have changed in color and style over the last 150 years but the basic layout hasn't. Developed from the dice game of Hazzard which was played for high stakes in gaming houses first in France and then in England the main centers of sin were Paris and London. In the 1850's Hazzard was brought to the New Orleans which was a terrirtory of France . Gambling dens along the water front combined with heavy drinking to create a perfect atmosphere for huge profits. Game play changed as cotton and merchandise moved up and down the Mississippi River in the 1800's. Coming from europe as "Crapaud" the southerners shortened it with American slang to Craps. it moved up the Mississippi river on the steam boats with the gamblers into the midwest and the beginnings of the American westward movement. Transfering to the Railroads moving west to San Francisco across the plains Hell on Wheels gambling houses sprang up all along the line. Easy to play and cheap to set up dice games were played everywhere on small 4' long tables. Most with loaded dice to give the Gambler running the table a better edge with the players. In 1907 a dice maker named John Winn was running the Take Off game in NY and for a quarter he would let bettors place wagers either for or against the shooter. This inovation led to a change in the layout with the Don't Pass space being added. This was know as the Philadelphia Layout. When gamblers complained that the Duce was appearing too often on the come out he changed it again and substituted the 2-12 in its place. This became standard across the industry.